making local government more ethical
Last November, I wrote a long blog post examining an important general advisory opinion from the District of Columbia's ethics commission on the subject of constituent services. Through a list of general considerations, a look at relevant laws, and a number of illustrative scenarios, the opinion essentially defined the term "usual and customary constituent services," which is an exception to the prohibition on the use of office for someone's personal benefit in the council's code of conduct. The opinion was made in response to a matter that had arisen with respect to a particular council member's situation. The goal was to provide clarity and guidance, especially to council members. I gave the advisory opinion a high grade, but noted a few positions with which I disagreed.

Earlier this month, the council passed a resolution (attached; see below) amending its code of conduct in order to define this same term, but with far more limited language and with no guidance at all. There are two problems with the definition it provided. One is the definition itself. The other is the council's interference with the EC's authority to interpret the District's ethics provisions.

According to an editorial yesterday in the Luzerne County (PA) Citizens Voice, the Luzerne County council, on advice of the county attorney, is planning to hold an executive session tomorrow to discuss changes to its ethics code. The editorial says it would be wrong to hold an executive session.

The county attorney's reasoning is that the changes present a "very high potential for litigation." Why, you ask, would a discussion of ethics reforms lead to litigation? Because the county attorney "maintains that people who had cases before the ethics commission under the current ethics code could sue on the grounds that the original code was flawed."

They said it couldn't — or, at least, wouldn't — be done, but you can see it for yourself, in living Internet color:  non-required disclosures made by Chicago officials and employees.

These are not annual disclosures, but mostly disclosures of gift offers, accepted and rejected. There are dozens of them for 2012 and 2013, and 9 already for 2014. It's good that these disclosures are made, and that they're made public. It never hurts to make local officials look good!

Maybe the next Chicago fraud case will involve officials making up gifts that they can say they returned.
The draft of Fordham Law professor Zephyr Teachout's new essay, "The Forgotten Law of Lobbying," which will appear in Election Law Journal, looks at the history of how American courts have viewed lobbying. This history provides a valuable perspective on lobbying, making it more clear what it is about lobbyists that attracts bad feelings.

After all, when looked at in terms of First Amendment free speech and the redress of grievances, as recent court decisions have, lobbyists should be lionized as elves hard at work to make our democracy work. But, as Teachout shows, lobbyists were not seen in terms of the First Amendment until recently. And they were also seen not as elves, but as people corrupting our democratic system.

This week, the Broward County (FL) inspector general filed a Review of the Existing Ethics Structure (attached; see below) of the countywide ethics program that he oversees, and which came into being via charter amendments overwhelmingly approved by the county's voters in late 2010. The 21-page report focuses on a two-part reform recommendation:  (1) an ethics officer who would uniformly interpret the Code and provide precedential advisory opinions, and (2) a panel to decide on appeals and review the ethics program.

The IG calls for reform in two phases. First, improvement of the program's structure "to ensure consistent and impartial guidance, training, and enforcement." Second, "periodic, independent, and public consideration of the policies themselves and any necessary substantive corrections or revisions to the Code."

Florida Senate Bill 606 (attached; see below) is one of the worst ethics reform bills I have ever read. But it is far worse than the words it consists of. What makes it worse is that, with respect to laws that affect local officials, it is largely the work of the Florida League of Cities (this was confirmed to me by representatives of both the League and state senator Jeff Clemens, the bill's sponsor). It is work like this that leads me to question whether local government associations should be permitted to lobby on matters involving government ethics. This issue will be dealt with in the last of the blog posts related to the bill.

Penalties on the Complainant
It's hard to know where to start. So I'll start with the most insidious proposal — an additional penalty on complainants — because here the League of Cities has shown a level of cleverness that I have not seen elsewhere. Unfortunately, the League's cleverness has been employed to get around a 1988 decision striking down the very same penalty on complainants, based on First Amendment free speech rights.